Wednesday, March 11, 2020
The Consequences of World War I World War I was fought on battlefields throughout Europe between 1914 and 1918. It involved human slaughter on a previously unprecedented scale- and its consequences were enormous. The human and structural devastation left Europe and the world greatly changed in almost all facets of life, setting the stage for political convulsions throughout the remainder of the century. A New Great Power Before its entry into World War I, the United States of America was a nation of untapped military potential and growing economic might. But the war changed the United States in two important ways: the countrys military was turned into a large-scale fighting force with the intense experience of modern war, a force that was clearly equal to that of the old Great Powers; and the balance of economic power began to shift from the drained nations of Europe to America. However, the dreadful toll taken by the war led U.S. politicians to retreat from the world and return to a policy of isolationism. That isolation initially limited the impact of Americas growth, which would only truly come to fruition in the aftermath of World War II. This retreat also undermined the League of Nations and the emerging new political order. Socialism Rises to the World Stage The collapse of Russia under the pressure of total warfare allowed socialist revolutionaries to seize powerÃ and turn communism, one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s growing ideologies, into a major European force. While the global socialist revolution that Vladimir Lenin believed was coming never happened, the presence of a huge and potentially powerful communist nation in Europe and Asia changed the balance of world politics. Germanys politics initially tottered towardÃ joining Russia, but eventually pulled back from experiencing a full Leninist change and formed a new social democracy. This would come under great pressure and fail from the challenge of Germanys right, whereas Russias authoritarian regime after the tsarists lasted for decades. The Collapse of Central and Eastern European Empires The German, Russian, Turkish, and Austro-Hungarian Empires all fought in World War I, and all were swept away by defeat and revolution, although not necessarily in that order. The fall of Turkey in 1922 from a revolution stemming directly from the war, as well as that of Austria-Hungary, was probably not that much of a surprise: Turkey had long been regarded as the sick man of Europe, and vultures had circled its territory for decades. Austria-Hungary appeared close behind. But the fall of the young, powerful, and growing German Empire, after the people revolted and the Kaiser was forced to abdicate, came as a great shock. In their place came a rapidly changing series of new governments, ranging in structure from democratic republics to socialist dictatorships. Nationalism Transforms and Complicates Europe Nationalism had been growing in Europe for decades before World War I began, but the wars aftermath saw a major rise in new nations and independence movements. Part of this was a result of Woodrow WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s isolationist commitment to what he called self-determination. But part of it was also a response to the destabilization of old empires, which nationalists viewed as an opportunity to declare new nations. The key region for European nationalism was Eastern Europe and the Balkans, where Poland, the three Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, and others emerged. But nationalism conflicted hugely with the ethnic makeup of this region of Europe, where many different nationalities and ethnicities sometimes lived in tension with one another. Eventually, internal conflicts stemming from new self-determination by national majorities arose from disaffected minorities who preferred the rule of neighbors. The Myths of Victory and Failure German commander Erich Ludendorff suffered a mental collapse before he called for an armistice to end the war, and when he recovered and discovered the terms he had signed onto, he insisted Germany refuse them, claiming the army could fight on. But the new civilian government overruled him, as once peace had been established there was no way to keep the army fighting. The civilian leaders who overruled Ludendorff became scapegoats for both the army and Ludendorff himself. Thus began, at the very close of the war, the myth of the undefeated German army being stabbed in the back by liberals, socialists, and Jews who had damaged the Weimar Republic and fueled the rise of Hitler. That myth came directly from Ludendorff setting up the civilians for the fall. Italy didnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive as much land as it had been promised in secret agreements, and Italian right-wingers exploited this to complain of a mutilated peace. In contrast, in Britain, the successes of 1918 which had been won partly by their soldiers were increasingly ignored, in favor of viewing the war and all war as a bloody catastrophe. This affected their response to international events in the 1920s and 1930s; arguably, the policy of appeasement was born from the ashes of World War I. The Largest Loss: A Lost Generation While it is not strictly true that a whole generation was lost- and some historians have complained about the term- eight million people died during World War I, which was perhaps one in eight of the combatants. In most of the Great Powers, it was hard to find anyone who had not lost someone to the war. Many other people had been wounded or shell-shocked so badly they killed themselves, and these casualties are not reflected in the figures.
Monday, February 24, 2020
WMD - Research Paper Example Some scholars of the world have often referred to the disease as Ã¢â¬Ërabbit feverÃ¢â¬â¢. The disease is less contagious hence not communicable and individuals can only contract the disease upon breathing in the dust that is contaminated with the Francisella tularensis virus, drinking water or eating food contaminated with the virus, being bitten by an insect that is infected with the disease and touching the wounds, hair, skin of both the infected animals and human beings. The Department of Health and Human services (HHS), Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP), Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute of Health (NIH) as well as the Federal Bureau of Investigation would adequately respond to the Francisella tularensis virus release situation since it is a bioterrorist event. The local law enforcing agencies as well as the Texas Health Department would also play a significant role in containing the incidence. At this juncture, the different health agencies will work towards minimizing the number of casualties by all means possible. The emergency response system in Texas would be fully tasked and resources fully committed. The Texas Health Department (THD), health care physicians and other medical practitioners would work for long hours to try and contain this situation. Resources within the Texas hospitals in this regard would be strained and eventually drained. Chen is a medical chief at Harborview Medical Center and also an associate professor in the University of Washington. Hickner is a professor of Family Clinical medicine and a Head of Department in the University Of Illinois College Of Medicine. Dr. Fink is a physician practicing family medicine. Calligher is one of the best research consultants in America while Dr Helen is the vice president of National Quality Forum (NQF). The main aim of this article was to establish the nature of
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Learning Needs of Diverse Learners and Students with languages other than English - Research Paper Example As part of a collection of comprehensive research into the teaching of ESL, this article is a valuable addition to the literature in the field Ã¢â¬â its focus on the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s need to reflect constantly on practice and pedagogy is worthwhile 3. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment by Paul Black and William Dylan (2001) The writers propose that the central element if any improvement in education is to take place is not policy change, or government decree, but the change which is implemented in the classroom Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Å"black boxÃ¢â¬ of the title. They then outline a possible method which will effect improvement, and which has been proven to increase output Ã¢â¬â formative assessment. This article presents a fairly persuasive argument for the advantages of formative assessment as a learning and teaching tool, and even suggests some strategies to use in the implementation of formative assessment techniques in the classroom, and the educational system (in England). The importance of the teacher is stressed, but so is the value of formative assessment strategies such as self-assessment in the building of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ competence, confidence and motivation. The value of formative assessment in assisting to improve student performance is proven fairly conclusively in the article, and it should be part of the strategy of all teachers. The argument and rhetoric surrounding summative v. formative assessment is ongoing, and this paper does add a measure of good argument and some empirical evidence to the debate. 4. Engaging Minds: Changing Teaching in Complex Times Ã¢â¬â Second Edition by Brent Davis, Dennis Sumara and Rebecca Luce-Kapler (2008) The writers test the issues surrounding inclusive... The changes required in teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ approaches, thoughts and beliefs will be considered in depth in this paper, and some consideration will be given to the practical measures required to address the needs of ESL students, and it will be presumed that the same requirements apply to students with diverse backgrounds and abilities. Also, the dangers of not addressing the individual learning needs of students, as a dominating factor in the system of education will be examined from the perspective of an education system in which diversity and inclusivity are addressed to some degree but in many Australian schools and classrooms, the situation is far from satisfactory. At secondary schools in Australia, the situation sometimes exists in which smaller schools find themselves challenged with primarily a lack of funding for anything other than mainstream schooling. Yet, schools do have to accept enrolments of international students, and indeed even refugee students, as the need arises. Thus, on the level of physical infrastructure, schools are strained to provide something as basic as venues to accommodate for example English Second Language (ESL) students, and such students have to be accommodated in one classroom despite differing levels of English proficiency, and even age differences. Social problems can emerge among students Ã¢â¬â as radical a condition as racism can develop Ã¢â¬â and if not addressed, these social problems can be extremely detrimental to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Understanding Prejudice Essay What exactly is the meaning of prejudice, and what does being prejudiced mean? Prejudice is a big word with a very deep meaning. Indeed, a lot of people may not know the true sense of it and how it affects people in the society. People live in a world that is full of prejudice. It is considered as one of the negative social phenomenons and one of the main sources of problems in the world. Prejudice denotes making or predisposition to make a decision or judgment before one becomes aware of the relevant truth of a certain case or scenario. For instance, people may have heard others saying things about a certain group of individuals such as Ã¢â¬Å"all black people areÃ¢â¬ ¦. ,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"all white people areÃ¢â¬ ¦. ,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"people in third world countries areÃ¢â¬ ¦,Ã¢â¬ etc. (Breen, 2006). People may think that prejudice only refers to racial prejudice that is usually directed towards people with light or dark skin. However, I have learned that prejudice has a deeper meaning than discrimination against people of a certain race or color. Rather, prejudice can also be a result of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s gender and geographical, religious, and cultural backgrounds. Every person also has his or her own way of being prejudiced. For example, one can judge somebody by the way he or she dresses and talks or even by his or her appearance. Thus, prejudice can come from different sources such as peers, parents, school, and public organization. At the same time, it can also be directed to various types of people. There are also many different kinds of prejudice that exist in our society today. Some of them may be observed in school, at home, or even in the television. For this reason, discrimination, racism, sexism, and other forms of social problems exist in the world we live in. Hence, it is not fair and also very sad that prejudice is a widely pervasive phenomenon in the world. (Breen, 2006). It is always inevitable to become prejudiced. There are a lot of reasons why people become prejudiced. It is a fact that one can learn it from home; parents often do not recognize that they are being an example to their children. If parents are prejudiced, then it is most likely that the child will also become one because that is what he or she observes from his or her parents. Children may also become prejudiced if parents directly teach or tell the former to perceive somebody or some things in the society in a certain way. That is why at a very young age, many children start to become prejudiced already and start to judge people and things by what they believe and think of them. They also become prejudiced due to the environment that they grow up in, the school and the neighborhood that they get involved in or witnesses. The media also plays a role in influencing people to become prejudiced. The effect on prejudice of television shows and films is very substantial. There are just so many ways on how people can become prejudiced, and it is very alarming that it has become one common source of misunderstandings, fights, and disputes all over the world (Breen, 2006). It is very hard to stop prejudice; however, it can be lessened if people would try not to be judgmental on simple things that they see and observe in their environment. Proper or right education must be imposed to children especially at home and in school in order to stop prejudice and so that people will eventually look at one another without making negative judgments. On the other hand, it would be very difficult to stop this social phenomenon as prejudice has become already part of the society. In conclusion, prejudice is an attitude that is based on generalizations and stereotypes. It is very astounding how easy it is for an individual to become prejudiced on somebody or something. Nevertheless, prejudice is merely a kind of thinking or a feeling in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. While people will never abolish the existence of prejudice in the society, it can be lessened and prevented if everyone will just start to cooperate and make an effort in reducing it. I believe that working hand in hand toward a common objective or goal can bring different groups of people all together, regardless of their age, race and sex. Reference Breen, R. (2006). Real Life Issues: Prejudice. Great Britain: Trotman Company Limited.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Increase in Young Criminals Increased youth crime rate is caused largely by absent fathers as a result of divorce made too easy. Consider this chilling forecast. When we pass the year 2000, we will see two groups of working age adults emerging. One group will have received psychological, social, economic, educational and moral benefits and the other group will have been denied them all. The first group will have grown up with a father present in the house and the second group will have not had a father present. The groups will be roughly equal in size. In order to be divorced in my parent's era of the fifties, one mate had to be proven adulterous. Legally, one party was deemed guilty and one was innocent. That finding affected each party financially and socially enough so that most couples tried hard not to divorce. In Canada the rate of divorce in 1951 was one out of twenty couples. In the late sixties, the "sexual revolution" began and couples rebelled against the constraints of marriage. Movie makers and journalists became rich extolling the virtues of free love and liberation. The addition of more grounds for divorce and the elimination of the need to appear in court made it easier for couples to split. Now there are "no fault" divorces which further decrease the stigma. By 1987 one out of two couples divorced. Since then, the annual divorce rate has dipped slightly. The stigma is almost gone. Books are written about doing your own divorce. One can obtain a low budget quickie divorce by phone or fax to the Dominican Republic in about three days. There are "divorce parties". Even the Royal Family discusses its divorce dilemmas on t.v. The divorce picture is not all rosy. According to sociologist Lenore Weitzman, divorced women get by on about 64% of the income they had during marriage. For their children, this translates into less money for school activities, clothes, opportunities for traveling and learning, day care and sometimes food. Children can be called on to do adult tasks before they are ready, like caring for younger siblings. Older children may be required to work long hours at a job to help bring money to the family. As a result, they may fall behind in their school work. After a while, the child may feel it is hopeless to try to keep up and decide to quit school.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Problems arise in the world due to salinity, as when the salt gets on to the top of the soilÃ¢â¬ ¦.. it causes disaster to the plants and trees. Salt comes in many forms in the natural environmentÃ¢â¬âcalcium, magnesium, carbonate, sodium chloride, bicarbonate, and sulphate. Many landscapes are naturally saline, but secondary salinity isnÃ¢â¬â¢t so natural, occurring when salts from deep within the earth are dissolved and deposited into soil and water as a result of human activity. This can happen in one of two ways: Dryland salinity Ã¢â¬â from removal of deep-rooted plantsIn dry regions, deeply-rooted perennial plants, such as shrubs, trees, and grasses, play an important role in regulating groundwater levels. As water is applied to the soil, the plants drink it up and breath it out through a process called evapotranspiration. This ensures that the water table levels stay relatively stable. But this balance is thrown into chaos when farmers clear the land to gain more space for grazing animals and cultivating food crops. In doing so, they remove the deep-rooted plants and replace them with shallow-rooted annual crops.These plants do not take up as much water as once-plentiful native plants, and as a result, more water remains in the soil. Over timeÃ¢â¬âup to 30 yearsÃ¢â¬âwater accumulates in the land, causing the water table to rise. As it does so, it passes through layers of salt and dissolving the deposits that have existed in the land for centuries. The shallow-rooted plants canÃ¢â¬â¢t keep up with the rising water levels, which results in rising salt deposits in ever-increasing concentrations in topsoil. Irrigation salinity Ã¢â¬â from overirrigationMuch like dryland salinity, irrigation salinity results in a rising water table that brings deep deposits of salt upwards through soil layers. But instead of being caused by land clearing, it results from increased irrigation. As water soaks into the soil, it adds to existing water, raising t he water table, bringing salt along for the ride. During periods of irrigation, the water table will lower again, but salt will remain in surface soil, increasing the salt concentration with each irrigation cycle. What impact does it have? Contamination of ecosystems with excess saltBoth dryland and irrigation salinity result in similar environmental challenges: * Groundwater used for human consumption as well as agricultural and industrial applications becomes saline, making it unusable * Wetlands and bushland ecosystems are damaged, resulting in declines in wildlife biodiversity * Salt damages houses, pipelines, railways, buildings, roads, and water supply systems What has been done about it? Many conservation and regeneration options available There are many possible steps a community can take to prevent and/or reverse salinity: Identify areas where potential for biodiversity loss is significant due to salinity, setting targets to protect and bring back sensitive species * Protec ting key native vegetation species from being cleared and promoting reintroduction of these species in areas affected by salinity * Limit over-irrigation and the construction of dams in sensitive areas, such as wetlands and watercourses * Promote environmentally-sound property management planning * Educate farmers and the public about the risks of increasing salinity * Construct both surface and sub-surface drainage systems to prevent salinity that results from rising water levelsIs this action working? Reversing soil salinity a slow process Ã¢â¬â prevention is easier Progress in preventing and reversing the effects of salinization is slow and painstaking. Research is beginning to identify ways farmers can continue to cultivate their crops without increasing soil salinity. Planting salt tolerant, deep-rooted plants throughout agricultural lands in one way to see improvements, but like most solutions, it can be costly and requires by-in from farmers and communities alike. Further education of key stakeholders in communities at risk of salinization is required. Why is this? Effects of soil salinity take many years to appearIt can take up to 30 years for communities to begin to feel the effects of increasing salinity, making reversal of the problem equally time-consuming. It also requires significant funding. The Australian government, for instance, pledged to spend nearly $8 million on salinization remediation plans to 2008. Should it continue? On one side, there are those who are against Without remediation of soil salinity, great problems lie ahead Without long-sighted solutions, the problem of salinity, including loss of agricultural land, devastation of ecosystems, and the costs associated with damaged property, will continue to increase. In the US, it is estimated that 10 million hectares of land is lost to salinity every year. The challenge is equally serious in Australia.Environmentalists have been drawing attention to this growing crisis for years, an d only after seeing the effects of salinity are individuals and governments coming to terms with the magnitude of the problem. Failure to address salinity could result in widespread crop failures and even more devastating loss of biodiversity. Should it continue? On the other side, there are those who are all for it Hydro advocates oppose There are many who prefer to turn a blind eye to the problem of salinity, especially those with a vested interest in the industries responsible for the consequences. Salinity can increase in the presence of dams and other water reservoirs, making salinity an acceptable cost to advocates of large-scale hydro projects.The damming of the Colorado River, which flows into Mexico, has caused significant increases in the brackish (i. e. saline) quality of the water. Reversing these problems so that those down river can be supplied with high-quality water has been expensive for the US, resulting in costs upwards of several hundred million dollars every yea r. FarmersÃ¢â¬â¢ struggles Equally challenging is working with farmers who see the very long-range problem of salinity as minor compared to the desire to see short-term financial gains through over-irrigation of crops. Small and large-scale farmers alike struggle with the reality of spending money to prevent a problem that may not occur for decades.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
A Comparison of the Depiction of Celies Struggle in Steven Spieldburgs The Color Purple and the Novel Innocence and naivety is portrayed instantly as the initial theme for Ã¢â¬Å"The Color PurpleÃ¢â¬ , in both respects. Spielburg opens with the positive scene of the heroine, Celie, playing wistfully in the fields with her sister, Nettie. Similarly, the novel commences with the words, Ã¢â¬Å"I am fourteen years old. I have always been a good girlÃ¢â¬ . In both cases, the brief curiosity of youth is quickly driven out, as the reader and the audience are forced to realiseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The novel elaborates on such events as the death of CelieÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, and the continuing abuse from her father. The reader also learns much more of the young girlÃ¢â¬â¢s naivety, influenced by explicit vocabulary of her developing pregnancy, and afterbirth with such statements like, Ã¢â¬Å"I got breasts full of milk running down myselfÃ¢â¬ . Such detailed references were not supported in the film production of Ã¢â¬Å"The Color PurpleÃ¢â¬ . Celie talks of her condition in a way by which the reader knows it is all first-hand experience, showing again her age and ingenuousness. Spielburg introduces the necessity and warmth of CelieÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with her sister, Nettie in the opening scene, as the pair play carelessly in the sun. This initial showing of the sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s closeness differs entirely from the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation. In the novel, the evident bond between the two is emphasised in an entirely sinister approach, Ã¢â¬Å"I see him looking at my little sister. She scared. But I say IÃ¢â¬â¢ll take care of you.Ã¢â¬ Walker and Spielburg have therefore instantly both aimed for very different approaches, when considering the introductory development of the relationship